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来源:http://www.spormac.net/   发布时间:2018-05-28 15:28:35
等离子体就是处于电离状态的气体,其英文名称是plasma,它是由美国科学 muir,于1927年在研究低气压下汞蒸气中放电现象时命名的。等离子体由大量的子、中性原子、激发态原子、光子和自由基等组成,但电子和正离子的电荷数必须体表现出电中性,这就是“等离子体”的含义。
The plasma is a gas in the state of ionization, and its English name is plasma. It is named by the American science Muir in the study of the discharge of mercury vapor at low pressure in 1927. Plasma consists of a large number of children, neutral atoms, excited atoms, photons and free radicals, but the number of electrons and positive ions must be electrically neutral, which is the meaning of the "plasma".
Many aspects of plasma are conductive and electromagnetic, which are different from solid, liquid and gas. Therefore, some people call it the fourth state of matter. According to the state, temperature and ion density, plasma can usually be classified into high temperature plasma and low temperature plasma (BUN and cold plasma).
其中高温等离子体的电离度接近1,各种粒子温度几乎相同系处于热力学平衡状态,它主要应用在受控热核反应研究方面。而低温等离子体则学非平衡状态,各种粒子温度并不相同。其中电子温度( Te)≥离子温度(Ti),可达104K以上,而其离子和中性粒子的温度却可低到300~500K。一般气体放电子体属于低温等离子体。
The ionization degree of the high temperature plasma is close to 1, and the temperature of all kinds of particles is almost in the state of thermodynamic equilibrium. It is mainly used in the study of controlled thermonuclear reaction. The low temperature plasma is nonequilibrium, and the temperature of various particles is different. The electron temperature (Te) is greater than the ion temperature (Ti), which can reach more than 104K, while the temperature of its ions and neutral particles can be as low as 300 to 500K. The general gas discharge electron body belongs to the low temperature plasma.
As of 2013, the study of the action mechanism of low temperature plasma is considered to be the result of particle inelastic collision. Low temperature and so on are rich in electrons, ions, free radicals and excited states, in which high energy electrons and gas molecules (atoms) are hit, the energy is converted into the internal energy of the ground state molecules (atoms), and a series of excitations, dissociation and ionization occur in the activation state. On the one hand, the molecular bonds of gas have been opened to produce some single molecules and solid particles; the other has the free radicals such as.OH, H2O2. and so on, and the highly oxidizing O3 plays a decisive role in this process, and the thermal motion of the ion is only side effect.
At atmospheric pressure, the electron thermometer degree of high non-equilibrium plasma produced by gas discharge is much higher than that of gas temperature (around 100 C at room temperature). Various types of chemical reactions may occur in nonequilibrium plasma, which are mainly determined by the average energy of electrons, electron density, gas temperature, molecular concentration of harmful gases, and the composition of more than one gas. This provides for the removal of a large amount of active energy, such as the removal of refractory pollutants in the atmosphere, as well as the treatment of volatile organic pollutants and sulfur containing pollutants, such as low concentration, high flow rate, large air volume, and sulfur containing pollutants.
The common method of producing plasma is gas discharge. The so-called gas discharge refers to the ionization of an electron from a gas atom or molecule through some mechanism. The gas medium formed is called an ionized gas. If the ionized gas is produced by an external electric field and forms a conducting current, this phenomenon is called gas discharge. According to the mechanism of the discharge, the nature of the pressure J source of the gas and the geometry of the electrode, the discharge plasma of the gas is divided into the following forms: (1) glow discharge; (3) dielectric barrier discharge; (4) radio frequency discharge; (5) microwave discharge. No matter which form of plasma is produced, high voltage discharge is needed. It is dangerous to fire easily. Because of the treatment of gaseous pollutants, it is generally required to operate at atmospheric pressure.
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